Philotas, known as a friend of Alexander, tried to reconcile him to Philip after the mysterious affair of the negotiations with Pixodarus (Plut. Callisthenes probably ‘re-wrote’ his history to defame the general after the murder, to excuse Alexander’s actions further. After Issus Parmenion hurried to Damascus to secure the Persian baggage train – from where he sent Barsine, the widow of Memnon, to become Alexander’s mistress. This quote relates to the effect Alexander’s actions had on his campaign. It would appear that Alexander’s excuse for having Parmenion killed was that he, along with Hegelochus (who died at Gaugamela) and Philotas had plotted against Alexander in Egypt, and that Parmenion had resumed plotting with Philotas more recently. Hi! Search: Add your article Home Events Years 1776 1776 births Parmenio Adams. As soon as Philotas was dead Alexander sent Parmenion’s friend Polydamus to Ecbatana, with sealed orders to the other commanders – Cleander, Sitalces, Agathon and Menidas – to kill the general. Parmenio -onis). .. Add an external link to your content for free. By the time of Philip’s death he was the foremost general in Macedonia (after Philip, of course) and he continued to be held in high regard in the same position under Alexander until his death in 330BC. Since the evidence demands, it, Alexander's name must be freed of an unjust charge, and yet it is difficult to believe that Alexander, had he wished, could not have persuaded the army to different action. Parmenio's death, having' been ordered by the Macedonians themselves as was that of Philotas, becomes a judicial execution. Corrections? (There is some debate as to whether there really was an established custom in Macedonia of slaying all a traitor’s family to prevent repercussions, as has been asserted in the past.). NOW 50% OFF! Alexander, now recognised as the greatest commander of all time, retained Parmenio as his foremost General, but employed him somewhat differently to how his father had done. Parmenion was sent by Philip to secure a bridgehead in Asia in 336BC. I am preparing an article about the men behind Alexander and although I have a lot of good books in my hands I stopped dead on Parmenio. The campaign against Persia, which had had a bad start, could now really begin. Alexander made good use of the terrain in a battle, trying to find rough ground to prevent the chariots being used at Gaugamela. The presentation of Parmenio as a foil to Alexander with Alexander always coming out as the bolder and wiser, as handed down by the Alexander historians, stands in sharp contrast with Polybius’ view that “only a share of the credit for the Macedonian conquest belongs to Alexander” (294). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Parmenio, Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Parmenio. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He was largely responsible for the planning and execution of the Macedonian invasion of Persia. Even if the accusations were false, Alexander felt he had to remove Parmenion when Philotas was executed, for Parmenion at Ecbatana controlled a large military force, a vast quantity of treasure and Alexander’s logistic lifeline. Parmenio became Alexander’s second in command throughout the conquest of Persia and commanded the left wing of the army at the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. It is perhaps difficult to excuse Alexander for ordering the murder but to leave Parmenion alive would have been too great a risk. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. While Alexander went gallivanting along the coast of Asia Minor the old general took the baggage train and the rest of the army onto the Anatolian Plateau to secure the hinterland until Alexander came to meet him at Gordium. Omissions? Già Filippo II aveva sperimentato le sue non comuni capacità di stratego in una vittoriosa campagna contro i Dardani (356) e poi nel primo tentativo macedone di porre il piede in Asia (336). This site is powered by CMS Made Simple. In the confusion that followed Philip’s murder, he declared for Alexander and assisted in the murder of members of the faction opposed to Alexander. At the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. According to Plutarch Philip had just captured Potidaea when he learned that Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians, that his race-horse was victorious in the Olympic Games, and that Alexander had been born. - Generale macedone (400-330 a. C. circa). in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. During the campaign, Philotas, Parmenio’s son, was charged with conspiring to murder Alexander, tried, and put to death. VIII. Attalus married one of Parmenio's daughters and accompanied him when he took charge of the invasion of Asia before Philip's death. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). Alexander the great was studied under the Aristotle of Stagira, who was a Greek philosopher who pioneered systematic, … Parmenion’s reputation has come down to us rather tarnished in the sources, it appears thanks to Callisthenes and probably to Aristoboulos, too. Steven English in his “The Sieges of Alexander the Great” draws the picture of an all-powerful Parmenion, a seasoned fighter with a thorough experience.Besides that, the key positions in the army were occupied by his relatives: sons, allies, kindred, friends, etc. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc —died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. Alexander "the Great" -- son of the Macedonian king who created and trained the mighty army that Alexander inherited -- did what few, if any, mortals ever have: he subdued much of the then-known world. In Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia Philotas, Parmenio’s son, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, was implicated in an alleged plot against Alexander’s life, condemned by the army, and executed; and a secret message was sent to Cleander, Parmenio’s second in command, who obediently assassinated him. In midsummer 330 Alexander set out for the eastern provinces at a high speed via Rhagae (modern Rayy, near Tehrn) and the Caspian Gates, where he learned that Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, had deposed Darius. Journal Content. son Alexander. So, for example, Parmenion advised Alexander not to attack too early at the Granicus – which was actually very sensible counsel; and he urged Alexander to “steal a victory” at Gaugamela by attacking the Persians at night. And while Alexander besieged Tyre he remained in Syria to keep the coast clear and the supply lines open. 2 While there is a robust tradition of Parmenio’s attempts to guide Alexander, this particular occasion is unique to Arrian, and it Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Hellenistic Age chronicles the years 336 to 30 BCE, a period that witnessed the overlap of two of antiquity’s great civilizations, the Greek and the Roman.
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